Diabetes is a disease caused by high blood glucose (sugar) diagnosed when the body cannot properly store or use glucose. This leads to glucose accumulating in the bloodstream, leading to poor health and long term health complications if untreated.There are two types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Although both of these types of diabetes have similarities, there are differences:
- In type 1 diabetes, your body is unable to make insulin.
- In type 2 diabetes, your body cannot produce enough insulin, or the insulin being made doesn’t function properly.
What are the main differences between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes, also called juvenile diabetes, is a disorder where the immune system produces antibodies to attack the cells that make insulin in the pancreas.
This leaves people unable to make insulin, which we need to live. Therefore people with Type 1 diabetes have to be on insulin treatment.
Type 1 diabetes is often called juvenile diabetes, usually diagnosed in children or young adults. However, it can be diagnosed later in life as well.
Type 2 diabetes, sometimes called adult-onset diabetes, is the most common type of diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is commonly associated with obese and overweight adults meaning it has a more robust genetic component than type 1 diabetes. Individuals of specific racial and ethnic backgrounds are also much more likely to develop type 2 diabetes.
While type 2 diabetes used to be diagnosed in adults most often, it is now being diagnosed in children and young adults with obesity more often.
What are the different symptoms of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes?
The symptoms of Type 1 diabetes tend to present with the classic symptoms of high blood glucose, including:
- blurred vision
- excessive urination and thirst
- weight loss
If blood glucose levels in your body are elevated, your kidneys will start to excrete glucose – drawing water which leads to excessive urination. This can then lead to dehydration and extreme thirst.
Suppose this is not picked up early enough. In that case, it can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), where blood acid levels rise and lead to severe illnesses such as vomiting, shortness of breath, weakness and loss of consciousness.
Type 2 Diabetes can often present without any symptoms if picked up early enough.
However, people with type 2 diabetes can also develop the classic symptoms of high blood glucose mentioned above.